高中英语语法归纳总结第五、六章

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第五章 动词不定式

1 不定式作宾语

1) 动词+ 不定式

afford, aim, appear, agree, arrange, ask, be, decide, bother, care, choose, come, dare, demand, desire, determine, expect, elect, endeavor, hope, fail, happen, help, hesitate, learn, long, mean, manage, offer, ought, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, wait, wish, undertake

The driver failed to see the other car in time. 司机没能及时看见另一辆车。

I happen to know the answer to your question. 我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

2) 动词+不定式;动词+宾语+不定式

ask, beg, choose, expect, hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish

I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你使每件东西都保持整洁。

I want to speak to Tom. 我想和汤姆谈话。

I want you to speak to Tom. 我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to

decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell

Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。

There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

注意

疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。如:The question is how to put it into practice. 问题是怎样把它付诸实施。

2. 不定式作补语

1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)

advise, allow, appoint, believe, cause, challenge, command, compel, consider, declare, drive, enable, encourage, find, forbid, force, guess, hire, imagine, impel, induce, inform, instruct, invite, judge, know, like, order, permit, persuade, remind, report, request, require, select, send, state, suppose, tell, think, train, trust, understand, urge, warn

a.Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。

b.We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。

Find 的特殊用法

Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有gethave

I found him lying on the ground.

I found it important to learn.

I found that to learn English is important.

典型例题

The next morning she found the man ___ in beddead.

A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying

答案:A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。

acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel, find, guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see(理解), show, suppose, take(以为), understand

We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class. 我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

典型例题

Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer.

A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

答案:A. consider to do sth. 排除BD. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C

3) to be +形容词

seem, appear, be said, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known, be reported, hope, wish, desire, want, plan, expect, mean

The book is believed to be uninteresting. 人们认为这本书没什么意思。

4) there be+不定式

believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand

We didn't expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

注意

有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider.

We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。

Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。

3. 不定式作主语

1) It's easy (for me) to do that. 我做这事太容易了。

easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better;

the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough

It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。

It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。

kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的)

It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。

It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意

1) 其他系动词如,lookappear等也可用于此句型

2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。

3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is to…的句型

()To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。()It is to believe to see.

It's for sb. It's of sb.

1) for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:

It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

2) of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right

It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。

for of 的辨别方法

用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for)

4. 不定式作表语

不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:

My work is to clean the room every day.

His dream is to be a doctor.

5. 不定式作定语

不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。例如:

I have a lot of work to do.

So he made some candles to give light.

6. 不定式作状语

1) 目的状语

To only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such) as to (如此……以便……)

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。

I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2) 作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。

What have I said to make you angry.

He searched the room only to find nothing.

3) 表原因

I'm glad to see you.

典型例题

The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___.

A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on

答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。

用作介词的to

to 有两种用法:一为不定式+动词原形; 一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是第二种,即to+ 名词/动名词:admit to承认,confess to承认,be accustomed to 习惯于,be used to 习惯于,stick to 坚持,turn to开始,着手于,devote oneself to 献身于,be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望,pay attention to

注意

to 的动词不定式

1) 情态动词 ( ought 外,ought to)

2) 使役动词 let, have, make

3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to

注意

在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。

I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance.

The boss made them work the whole night.=They were made to work the whole night.

4) would ratherhad better

5) Why / why not…:

6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth

7) butexceptbut前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。

8) and, orthan连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:

9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to beHe is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。举例:He wants to move to France and marry the girl. He wants to do nothing but go out. 比较:He wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

典型例题

1) ---- I usually go there by train.

---- Why not ___ by boat for a change?

A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going

答案:D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D

2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard.

A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning

答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。

动词不定式的否定式

Tell him not to shut the window

She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。

不定式的特殊句型tooto

1) tooto 太…以至于…

He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了,说不出话来。

---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?

---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 "不太"

It's never too late to mend. (谚语) 改过不嫌晚。

3) too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very

I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。

He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

不定式的特殊句型so as to

1) 表示目的;它的否定式是so as not to do

Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。

Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。

2) so kind as to ---劳驾

Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾,现在几点了。

不定式的特殊句型Why not

"Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"

例如:Why not take a holiday? 干吗不去度假?

不定式的时态和语态

时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 to do  to be done

进行式 to be doing

完成式 to have done  to have been done

完成进行式 to have been doing

 

 

1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。

He seems to know this.

I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。

2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.

He seems to have caught a cold.

3) 进行时: 表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

He seems to be eating something.

4) 完成进行时:

She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

 

动名词与不定式

1) 动名词与不定式的区别:

动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的

不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的

2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。

3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组:

 

stop to do  stop doing

forget to do  forget doing

remember to do  remember doing

cease to do  cease doing

try to do  try doing

go on to do  go on doing

afraid to do   afraid doing

interested to do  interested doing

mean to do  mean doing

regret to do  regret doing

begin/start to do  begin/start doing

 

 

 

特殊词精讲

stop doing/to do

stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。

stop doing 停止做某事。

They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他们停下来,抽了根烟。

I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟了。

 

典型例题

She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path.

A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest

答案:C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。

stop doing/to do

 

forget doing/to do

forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)

The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作)

He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。( 已做过关灯的动作)

Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。(to come动作未做)

 

典型例题

---- The light in the office is still on.

---- Oh, I forgot___.

A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.

forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。

 

remember doing/to do

remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)

remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)

Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。

Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

 

regret doing/to do

regret to do 对要做的事遗憾。 (未做)

regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做)

I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice. 我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没有办法。

I don't regret telling her what I thought. 我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。

 

典型例题

---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.

---Well, now I regret ___ that.

A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done

答案:Dregret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选D

 

cease doing/to do

cease to do 长时间,甚至永远停做某事。

cease doing 短时停止做某事,以后还会接着做。

That department has ceased to exist forever. 那个部门已不复存在。

The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by. 姑娘们在老师走过时,停了会聊天。

 

try doing/to do

try to do 努力,企图做某事。

try doing 试验,试着做某事。

You must try to be more careful. 你可要多加小心。

I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。

 

go on doing/to do

go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。

go on doing 继续做原来做的事。

After he had finished his mathshe went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。

Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. 作完这个练习后,接着做其他的

 

第六章 倒装结构

 

一 全部倒装

 

全部倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:

1. here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。例如:

1) There goes the bell. 铃声渐渐消失了。

2) Then came the chairman. 然后主席就来了

3) Here is your letter. 这是你的信。

2. 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:

1) Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机下面发出了一颗导弹。

2) Ahead sat an old woman.

注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:

1) Here he comes. 他来了。

2) Away they went. 他们走了。

 

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