初中英语时态总结

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一般现在时

1、概念:1)表示经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。

时间状语:always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never, every day, twice a week, on Sunday, etc.(提问用How often

例:I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

例:The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

3 格言或警句。例:Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语是客观真理也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

2、结构:表状态 S+ am/is/are+ P (句中有实义动词不用be

表动作 S+V+O (若主语是单三人称,谓动加s/es。)

3、句式变化:

为一般疑问,有be动词的be动词提到主语前;无be动词的在主语前加do/does,谓语动词变为原形。

变否定,有be动词的be动词后加“not”;无be动词的在主语后加don’t/doesn’t,谓语动词变为原形。

例: They are in the classroom. 一般疑问句:Are they in the classroom? Yes, they are./No, they aren’t. 否定句:They aren’t in the classroom.

He often waters the flowers . 一般疑问句: Does he often water the flowers?

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. 否定句:He doesn’t often water the flowers

一般过去时

1 概念:1)表示在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。

常用时间状语:yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, just now, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982. at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, etc.

例:Where did you go just now?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

例:When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

2、结构:表状态 S+ was/were+ P

表动作 S+V过去式+O (注:句中有实义动词不用be

3、句式变化:

一般疑问,有be动词的be动词提到主语前;无be动词的在主语前加did,谓动变为原形。

变否定,有be动词的be动词后直接加“not”;无be动词的在主语后加didn’t,谓动变为原形.

例: She was in Xi’an last month. 一般疑问句:Was she in Xi’an last month? Yes, she was. /No, she wasn’t. 否定句:She wasn’t in Xi’an last month.

Danny grew a rose just now, 一般疑问句: Did Danny grow a rose just now?

Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t. 否定句:Danny didn’t grow a rose just now,

现在进行时:

1. 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作。

时间状语:now, at this time, ,以及有look, listen时。

例:ListenThe birds are singing.

2、结构:S + am/is/are + doing

3、句式变化:

变疑问,把am/is/are提到主语前,其它不变 变否定,在am/is/are后直接加“not”

例: I am writing a letter now. 一般疑问句: Are you writing a letter now? Yes, I am. /No, I’m not. 否定句:I am not writing a letter now. (注意amnot不能缩写。)

The boys are playing football. 一般疑问句: Are the boys playing football?

Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. 否定句:The boys aren’t playing football.

过去进行时:

1. 概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的动作。

.时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that timeat 8:00 yesterday,或有when / while引导的时间状语从句等。

例:We were having an English class at 9:30 yesterday morning.

I was reading a book while my mother was watching TV.

2、结构:S + was/were + doing

3、句式变化:

变疑问,把was/were提到主语前,其它不变 变否定,在was/were后直接加“not”其它不变。例:At that time they were working in the garden. 一般疑问句: Were they working in the garden at that time? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t. 否定句: At that time they weren’t working in the garden.

When he came in, I was reading a newspaper. 一般疑问句:When he came in, were you reading a newspaper? Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t. 否定句:When he came in, I wasn’t reading a newspaper.

、一般将来时

1. 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

时间词:tomorrow, tomorrow morning, at seven o'clock tomorrow evening, next year, this year, at the end of this term, from nowin ten minutes, in 2025

例:They will do an experiment tomorrow afternoon.

Brian is going to draw twenty pictures at the end of this term.

2 结构:S +will+ V+其他

(will 可改为be going to ,当主语是第一人称时will可用shall)

例:Which paragraph shall I read first 我先读哪一段呢?

Will you/(Are you going tobe at home at seven this evening?

3 句式变化:

变疑问,把will提到主语前,其它不变 变否定,在will后直接加“not”,其它不变

; She will drive to Beijing next week. 一般疑问句: Will she drive to Beijing next week? Yes, she will. / No, she won’t. 否定句:She won’t drive to Beijing next week.

be going to /will+ V

表示a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例:What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。例:The play is going to be produced next month

c. 有迹象要发生的事。例:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

be +不定式:表示将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例:

We are to discuss the report next Saturday. 我们下星期六将讨论这份报告。

be about to + V原:意为马上要做某事。

例:He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

注:be about to do 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确的将来时间状语连用。

一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

用现在进行时表示将来

come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等终止性动词可用现在进行时表示将来。

例:I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

、过去将来时

1.概念:表示站在过去看将要发出的动作或者存在的状态。因时间的参照点是过去的某一时间,常用于宾语从句中,或根据上下文语境确定。

2.结构:S +would+ V+其他

S +was/were going to + V

例:He said that he would have an exam next Friday.

Jenny asked who was going to give them a report.

I knew that he wouldn’t move to Japan with his parents next year.

现在完成时:

1. 表示:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。时间词:ever, never, already, yet, before, just, recently/ lately(最近) in the past few years

2. 或从过去已经开始持续到现在的动作或状态。 时间词:for + 时间段,since +过去时间点/从句。(提问用How long

例:The countryside has changed a lot in the past few years.

He has learned French for two years.

2.结构:S + have/has + done

3. 句式变化:

变疑问,把have/has提到主语前,其它不变 变否定,在have/has后直接加“not”

例: I've already written an article. 一般疑问句: Have you written an article yet? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. 否定句I haven’t written an article yet.

Li Ming has lived in Taiyuan since 1993.

一般疑问句: Has Li Ming lived in Taiyuan  since 1993? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t. 否定句:Li Ming hasn’t lived in Taiyuan since 1993.

比较一般过去时与现在完成时

1)一般过去时表示过去某具体时间发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时则强调过去发生的动作对现在的造成影响,强调的是结果。

2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。注意:有时间段的句子用现在完成时,有时间点的句子用过去时。

例:I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,指结果)

He joined the League three years ago. (强调加入这一动作,表示时间点

He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续,表示时间段

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

过去完成时:

1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此之前发生的动作或行为;或过去某个时间前一个持续发生的动作,即过去的过去 句中必须有过去的某一时间做参照点,常用于在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句中;before, after, by the time, until , when, once, as soon as等引导的时间状语从句中;或根据上下文语境确定。

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过去以前 过去 现在

例:She said thatshe had never been to Paris.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

2.结构:S + had + done

3.句式变化:

变疑问,把had提到主语前,其它不变 变否定,在had后直接加“not”

例:He had finished his homework before he went to play outside.

一般疑问句:Had he finished his homework before he went to play outside.

Yes, he had. / No, he hadn’t. 否定句:He hadn’t finished his homework before he went to play outside.

注意:1. had hardly… when 还没等…… ……。例如:

I had hardly opened the door when he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我。

2.had no sooner…than …… ……。例如:

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了。

 

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